Endocrine System ppt, powerpoint, slides

27 Mayıs 2011


A part of presentation :

- Compare the basic organization and function of the ES and the NS
- Describe the structural and functional organization of the hypothalamus and the pituitary and explain their relationship
- Discuss the locations and structures of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands as well as the thymus and the endocrine part of the pancreas.
- List the hormones (and their function) produced by these glands.
- Briefly review the results of abnormal hormone production.

Endocrine System Overview
- Ductless glands produce hormones
- Gland may be entire organ or interspersed bits of tissue
- Chemical classification of hormones
- Target tissues are identified by receptors

Control Center for internal environment
Regulates nervous and endocrine systems via 3 mechanisms:
- ANS centers exert nervous control on adrenal medulla
- ADH and Oxytocin production
- Regulatory hormone production (RH and IH) controls pituitary gland directly and all other endocrine glands indirectly

Pituitary Gland (= Hypophysis)
- Infundibulum – connection to hypothalamus
- In the sella turcica
- Two parts with an embryonic double origin
Posterior Pituitary = neurohypophysis Storage shed for ADH and Oxytocin (produced in ?)
Anterior Pituitary = adenohypophysis production of 7 peptide hormones, see fig 19.5

Hypophyseal Portal System
- Portal systems: two capillary networks in serial arrangement Advantage?
- Named after their destination: …
- Portal veins: blood vessels that link two capillary networks

Thyroid Gland
- Anterior surface of trachea just inferior of thyroid cartilage (or Adam’s apple)
- Two lobes connected by isthmus
- Microscopic thyroid follicles produce thyroid hormone
- C Cells – produce calcitonin ( lowers blood Ca2+ levels
- Thyroid pathologies: Hyper- and Hypothyroidism

Four Parathyroid Glands
4 tiny glands embedded in the back of the thyroid (superior and inferior)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH; sometimes also called parathormone)
Function: antagonist to Calcitonin

Thymus Gland
- Inside thoracic cavity immediately posterior to sternum above the heart
- Most active in infancy and childhood – Largest just before puberty
- Thymosin – enhances lymphocyte production and competence. (important for immune system)

Adrenal or Suprarenal Gland
- Cortex: corticosteroid production aldosterone, cortisol, sexhormone
- Medulla: modified sympathetic ganglion produces adrenaline and noradrenaline (parallels sympathetic division of ANS)


Part of endocrine and digestive systems. (99% exocrine)
Pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
alpha cells: glucagon (up – blood sugar levels by stimulating liver to convert glycogen to glucose)
betha cells: insulin (down – blood sugar levels by causing the cells to take up glucose for use by the mitochondria)
S cells: somatostatin

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